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How to deal with vaginal bleeding during pregnancy?

  • November 18, 2021
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How to deal with vaginal bleeding during pregnancy?

Any bleeding during pregnancy must be reported to the healthcare provider, as it could be a sign of an impending complication. The causes of vaginal bleeding vary depending on the trimester of pregnancy, and need complete workup by Gynecologist in Islamabad.

Read on to know the various causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and how to deal with it:

Causes of bleeding during first trimester

20 to 30 percent of pregnancies can experience first trimester bleeding. The numerous causes of first trimester bleeding include:

Implantation bleeding

In early pregnancy, there is harmless spotting called ‘implantation bleeding’ that occurs as the embryo implants itself in the wall of the uterus. Often, it occurs around the time as the period would occur, and can be mistaken for a mild period. This bleeding is normal in early pregnancy and no cause for concern.  

Ectopic pregnancy

This is also known as tubal pregnancy, and occurs when the embryo is implanted in a site other than the normal—commonly, in the fallopian tubes. As the embryo grows, it can rupture the fallopian tubes and cause life-threatening bleeding. Patient presents with abdominal pain and light headedness. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 3 percent of women and present around the tenth week of pregnancy.

Threatened miscarriage

In case of cramping and slight bleeding there is a risk of threatened miscarriage or threatened abortion. In this case, the is fetus still inside the uterus but the outcome of pregnancy is under question. It is common in case of: a urinary tract infection, due to certain medication or physical trauma.

Complete miscarriage

This is also called a complete miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. In this case the bleeding and cramping has slowed and the uterus appears empty on ultrasound evaluation. This is a common cause of first trimester bleeding.

Causes of bleeding during second or third trimester

Miscarriage

Fetal loss before 20th week of pregnancy is called miscarriage, and still birth thereafter.

Incompetent cervix

Pregnancy causes changes to the cervix, that can result in bleeding like postcoital bleeding. However, premature opening of the cervix, due to infection for instance, leads to preterm birth and even miscarriage.  

Placental abruption

Breaking off of the placenta from the uterine wall is called placental abruption. This condition causes pain and bleeding, as well as, fetal distress. 80 percent of women with placental abruption have bleed with dark blood and clots. Placental abruption occurs in women with hypertension, history of trauma like car accident, history of cocaine abuse or tobacco use.

Placenta previa

Placenta is normally located on the upper side of the uterus. When it is dislocated to the lower side of the uterus, such that it covers the cervix, it can cause late pregnancy bleeding, called placenta previa. 20 percent of all late pregnancy bleeding incidence is due to placenta previa. The risk factors for placenta previa include: history of c-section, previous history of placenta previa and multiple pregnancies.

Uterine rupture

This life-threatening condition occurs when there is abnormal splitting of the uterus causing partial or complete expulsion of the baby into the abdomen. This is a rare condition that can occur at the time of delivery or during labor. The risk factors include: trauma, forceps delivery, breech baby, history of more than four pregnancies, use of oxytocin and shoulder dystocia.

When to call the doctor?

Any sign of bleeding during pregnancy needs immediate evaluation by Best Gynecologist in Lahore. There is no home-care for bleeding during pregnancy—especially late pregnancy. Rush to the ER if there is: severe bleeding, especially with cramping and contractions, fainting spells, vaginal bleeding lasting for more than 24 hours or bleeding with fever.  

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